Section Ⅰ Use of English
Here’s a common scenario that any number of entrepreneurs face today: you’re the CEO of a small business and though you're making a nice 1 , you need to find a way to take it to the next level. what you need to do is 2 growth by establishing a growth team. A growth team is made up of members from different departments within your company, and it harnesses the power of collaboration to focus 3 on finding ways to grow.
Let's look at a real-world 4 . Prior to forming a growth team, the software company BitTorrent had 50 employees.Working in the 5 departments of engineering, marketing and product development. This brought them good results until 2012, when their growth plateaued. The 6 was that too many customers were using the basic, free version of their product. And 7 improvements to the premium, paid version, few people were making the upgrade.
Things changed, 8 , when an innovative project marketing manager came aboard, 9 a growth team and sparked the kind of 10 perspective they needed. By looking at engineering issues from a marketing point of view, it became clear that the 11 of upgrades wasn't due to a quality issue. Most customers were simply unaware of the premium version and what it offered.
Armed with this 12 , the marketing and engineering teams joined forces to raise awareness by prominently 13 the premium version to users of the free version. 14 , upgrades skyrocketed, and revenue increased by 92 percent.
But in order for your growth, team to succeed, it needs to a have a strong leader. It needs someone who can 15 the interdisciplinary team and keep them on course for improvement.
This leader will 16 the target area, set clear goals and establish a time frame for the 17 of these goals. This growth leader is also 18 for keeping the team focus on moving forward and steer them clear of distractions. 19 attractive, new ideas can be distracting, the team leader must recognize when these ideas don’t 20 the current goal and need to be put on the back burner.
1.A. purchase B. profit C. connection D. bet
【答案】B. profit 原文提到“小公司的CEO也挣到了大钱”。make a nice profit意为“挣得可观的利润”，故选profit。
2.A. define B. predict C. prioritize D. appreciate
【答案】C. prioritize 原文提到“所需要做的是通过建立一个发展小组来优先促进增长”。此处强调“优先性”，故选prioritize。
3.A. exclusively B. temporarily C. potentially D. initially
【答案】A. exclusively 原文提到“利用合作的力量来专注于专门寻找增长的方法”。exclusively表示“独占地，专门地”，符合题意。
4.A. experiment B. proposal C. debate D. example
【答案】D. example 原文提到“来看一个现实生活中的例子”，此处通过举例子来例证上文的观点，故选example。
5.A. identical B. marginal C. provisional D. traditional
【答案】D. traditional 原文提到“50名雇员在工程、市场营销与产品研发等传统部门工作”。traditional表示“传统的”，符合题意。
6.A. rumor B. secret C. myth D. problem
【答案】D. problem 原文提到“问题是太多的顾客可以免费使用其产品的基础免费版本”。上文指出最开始卓有成就，但后来陷入了瓶颈期，所以，此处应衔接具有产生什么样的问题。故选problem。
7.A. despite B. unlike C. through D. besides
【答案】A. despite 原文提到“虽然对于付费版本做出了一定的改善，但是几乎没有人进行升级”。此处前后形成让步-转折逻辑，故选despite。
8.A. moreover B. however C. therefore D. again
【答案】B. however 原文提到“但是自从一位创新的海外经理人的到来使得事情发生了改变”。此处考查上下文的逻辑关系，上文指出改善没有得到公众的买账，而海外人才的引入却改变了这一些，所以，此处应填入转折逻辑词，故选however。
9.A. inspected B. created C. expanded D. reformed
【9答案】B. created 原文提到“这名经理人创建了发展团队”。此处与首段establish a growth team形成语义复现，故选created。
10.A.cultural B. objective C. fresh D. personal
【答案】C. fresh 原文提到“引发了一个他们所需要的新鲜视角”。创新人才的加入势必会给团队带来新鲜血液。此处与本段innovative形成语义复现，故选fresh。
11.A. end B. burden C. lack D. decrease
【答案】C. lack 原文提到“缺少升级的原因并不是由质量问题多导致，而是大部分消费者没有这方面的意识”。上文提到很少有消费者进行升级，所以产品缺少升级，故选lack。
12.A. policy B. suggestion C. purpose D. insight
【答案】D. insight 原文提到“具备这种洞察力，市场营销和工程部门加入到了团队之中”。此处与上文fresh perspective形成语义复现，新鲜的看法预示着对事情有了更独到的见解，故选insight。
13.A. contributing B. allocating C. promoting D. transferring
【答案】C. promoting 原文提到“将免费版本升级成优质版本”。此处与后文upgrade形成语义复现，故选promoting。
14.A. As a result B. At any rate C. By the way D. In a sense
【答案】A. As a result 原文提到“因此，升级量激增”。此处考查句间的逻辑关系，由于版本变得更加优质，所以选择升级的人数数量在增加，因此应填入因果逻辑词，故选as a esult。
15.A. unite B. finance C. follow D. choose
【答案】A. unite 原文提到“需要一个人来联合来自跨学科的组别”。上文leader一词提示，员工之间需要团结才能成功。unite意为“联合”，符合题意。
16.A. share B. identify C. divide D. broaden
【答案】B. identify 原文提到“领导需要确定目标区域”。下文指出设立目标，所以在设立目标之前应确定目标区域，故选identify。
17.A. announcement B. assessment C. adjustment D. accomplishment
【答案】D. accomplishment 原文提到“建立时间框架赖完成这些目标”。上文提到设立目标，所以此处应表示实现目标，故选accomplishment。
18.A. famous B. responsible C. available D. respectable
【答案】B. responsible 原文提到“领导需要负责去带领整个团队一起前进”。be responsible for意为“对……负责”，符合题意。
19.A. Before B. Once C. While D. Unless
【答案】C. while 原文提到“虽然很有吸引力，但是新的想法会让人分心”。此处体现句间的让步-转折逻辑关系，故选while。
20.A. serve B. limit C. summarize D. alter
【答案】A. serve 原文提到“一些想法不能服务目前的目标，并且需要暂时搁置”。即想法和目标无法实现协调统一，所以需要暂停，故选serve。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
In the quest for the perfect lawn, homeowners across the country are taking a shortcut- and it is the environment that is paying the price. About eight million square metres of plastic grass is sold each year but opposition has now spread to the highest gardening circles. The Chelsea Flower Show has banned fake grass from this year 's event declaring it to be not part of its ethos. The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), which runs the annual show in west London, says it has introduced the ban because of the damage plastic grass does to the environment and biodiversity. Ed Horne, of the RHS, said:"We launched our sustainability strategy last year and fake grass is just not in line with our ethos and views on plastic. We recommend using real grass because of its environmental benefits which include supporting wildlife, alleviating flooding and cooling the environment." The RHS's decision comes as campaigners try to raise awareness of the problems fake grass causes. A Twitter account, which claims to“cut through the green-wash" of artificial grass, already has more than 20.000 followers. It is trying to encourage people to sign two petitions. one calling for a ban on the sale of plastic grass and another calling for an“ecological damage " tax on such lawns. They have gathered 7.276 and 11.282 signatures However, supporters of fake grass point out that there is also an environmental impact with natural lawns, which need mowing and therefore usually consume electricity or petrol. The industry also points out that real grass requires considerable amnounts of water, weed killer or other treatments and that people who lay fake grass tend to use their garden more. The industry also claims that people who 1ay fake grass spend an average of f£500 on trees or shrubs for their garden, which provides habitat for insects. In response to another petition last year about banning fake lawns, which gathered 30.000 signatures. the government responded that it has“no plans to ban the use of artificial grass. It added:We prefer to help people and organizations make the right choice rather than legislating on such matters, However the use of artificial grass must comply with the 1egal and policy safeguards in place to protect biodiversity and ensure sustainable drainage, while measures such as the strengthened biodiversity duty should serve to encourage public authorities to consider sustainable alternatives.
21. The RHS thinks that plastic grass_____
A. is harmful to the environment
B. is a hot topic in gardening circles
C. is overpraised in the annual show
D. is ruining the view of West London
【答案】A. is harmful to the environment 解析： 该题为细节题，问RHS对于plastic grass塑料草的看法。通过RHS和plastic grass定位，锁定句子“The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), which runs the annual show in west London, says it has introduced the ban because of the damage plastic grass does to the environment and biodiversity.” 核心句意 “由于塑料草对环境和生物多样性造成的破坏，RHS出台了这项禁令。” 文章中because of the damage plastic grass does to the environment and biodiversity.对应A选项is harmful to the environment。 damage和harmful为同义改写。
22. The petitions mentioned in Paragraph 3 revealed the campaigners’
A. disappointment with the RHS
B. resistance to fake grass use
C. anger over the proposed tax
D. concern about real grass supply
【答案】B. resistance to fake grass use 解析：该题为细节题，通过题干petitions(请愿书)和campaigners(运动领导者)进行定位。通过campaigners所在句子“The RHS’s decision comes as campaigners try to raise awareness of the problems fake grass causes.”得知，campaigners试图提高人们对假草造成的问题的认识。 下文petitions所在句子，详细说明提升对假草问题的具体方式：It is trying to encourage people to sign two petitions, one calling for a ban on the sale of plastic grass and another calling for an “ecological damage” tax on such lawns. 即“呼吁禁止销售塑料草，和呼吁对此类草坪征收“生态破坏”税”。只有B选项 resistance to fake grass use(对假草使用的抵制)，对定位句进行了同义改写。
23. In Paragraph 4, supporters of fake grass point out______
A. the necessity to lower the costs of fake grass
B. the disadvantages of growing real grass
C. the way to take care of artificial lawns
D. the challenges of insect habitat protection
【答案】B. the disadvantages of growing real grass 解析：该题为细节题，问假草支持者的观点态度。通过第4段内容可概括出“天然草坪也会对环境造成影响，并且真正的草需要大量的水、除草剂或其他处理。” 只有B选项the disadvantages of growing real grass(种植真草的缺点), 是对文章的同义概括。
24. What would the government do with regard to artificial grass?
A. Urge legislation to restrict its use
B. Take measures to guarantee its quality
C. Remind its users to obey existing rules.
D. Replace it with sustainable alternatives.
【答案】C. Remind its users to obey existing rules. 解析：该题为细节题，问“政府会如何处理人造草?” 通过government和artificial grass定位，从文章中得知“政府没有计划禁止使用人造草，并且人工草地的使用必须遵守现有的法律和政策保障措施。文章中的comply with the legal and policy(遵守法律和政策)与B选项Remind its users to obey existing rules. (提醒用户遵守现有规则。) 是同义改写。
25. It can be learned from the text that fake grass____
A. is being improved continuously
B. has seen a market share decline
C. is becoming increasing affordable
D. has been a controversial product
【答案】D. has been a controversial product. 解析：该题为主旨题，问通过文章可以得出什么关于假草的结论。本题考查对文章主旨和段落大意的把握。 文章阐述了RHS， 假草支持者，和政府对于假草的不同态度，其中RHS禁止假草的使用，而政府表明没有禁止计划。各方观点明确并阐述了理由。因为文章是围绕fake grass展开争议，因为答案是D，是“有争议性的产品”。
It's easy to dismiss as absurd the Trump administration' s ideas for plugging the chronic funding gap of our national parks. Can anyone really think it's a good idea to allow Amazon deliveries to your tent in Yosemite or food trucks to line up under the redwood trees at Sequoia National Park? But the administration is right about one thing: U.S. national parks are in crisis. Collectively.they have a maintenance backlog of more than S12 billion. Roads, trails, restrooms. visitor centers and other infrastructure are crumbling. But privatizing and commercializing the campgrounds would not be the panacea that the Interior Department Outdoor Advisory Committee would have us believe. Campgrounds are a tiny portion of the overall infrastructure backlog. and concessionaires in the parks hand over, on average. only about 5% of their revenues to the National Park Service.
Moreover, increased privatization would certainly undercut one of the major reasons why 300 million visitors come to the parks each year: to enjoy nature and get a respite from the commercial drumbeat that overwhelms daily life. The real problem is that the parks have been chronically starved of funding.
We conducted a comprehensive survey examining how U.S. residents view their national parks. And we found that Americans place a very high value on them一whether or not they actually visit them. The peer-reviewed economic survey of 700U.S.taxpayers, conducted by mail and internet, also found that people would be willng to pay a significant amount of money to make sure the parks and their programs are kept intact. Some 81% of respondents said they would be willing to pay additional taxes for the next 10 years to avoid any cuts to the national parks. The national parks provide great value to U.S. residents both as places to escape and as symbols of nature. On top of this,they produce value from their extensive educational programs, their positive impact on the climate through carbon sequestration, their contribution to our cultural and artistic life, and of course through tourism. The parks also help keep America's past alive, working with thousands of local jurisdictions around the country to protect historical sites一including Ellis Island and Gettysburg一and to bring the stories of these places to 1ife. The parks do all this on a shoestring. Congress allocates only S3 billion a year to the national park system-an amount that has been flat since 2001 (in inflation- adjusted dollars) with the exception of a onetime boost in 2009 as part of the Obama stimulus package. Meanwhile, the number of annual visitors has increased by more than 50% since 1980, and now stands at 330 million visitors per year.
26.What problem are US national parks faced with?
A.Decline of business profits.
C.Lack of transportation services.
D.Poorly maintained infrastructure.
【答案】D Poorly maintained infrastructure.解析： 该题为细节题，问美国国家公园面临着什么问题，根据problem, US national parks回到原文定位，文中提到：“美国国家公园正处于危机之中。他们总共有超过120亿美元的维护费用积压下来没有拨款。”( U.S. national parks are in crisis. Collectively, they have a maintenance backlog of more than $12 billion.)所以美国国家公园面临着维护缺钱的问题，即基础设施维护不良。
27.Increased privatization of the campgrounds may .
A. spoil visitor experience
B. help preserve nature
C. bring operational pressure
D. boost visits to parks
【答案】A. spoil visitor experience 解析： 该题为细节题，问增加露营地的私有化可能会如何，根据关键词privatization， the campgrounds回到原文定位，文中提到：“增加私有化肯定会削弱每年3亿游客来公园的主要原因之一:享受自然，从淹没日常生活的商业鼓声中得到喘息。”(increased privatization would certainly undercut one of the major reasons why 300 million visitors come to the parks each year: to enjoy nature and get a respite from the commercial drumbeat that overwhelms daily life.)所以增加露营地的私有化可能会让游客仍然受到商业的影响，不能更好地享受自然，即破坏游客体验。
28.According to Paragraph 5, most respondents in the survey would
A. go to the national parks on a regular basis.
B.advocate a bigger budget for the national parks.
C.agree to pay extra for the national parks.
D.support the national parks’ recent reforms.
【答案】C.agree to pay extra for the national parks. 解析： 该题为细节题，问调查中的大多数受访者会如何，根据关键词respondents，the survey回到原文定位， 文中提到：“约81%的受访者表示，他们愿意在未来10年缴纳额外的税款，以避免任何削减国家公园的开支。”(Some 81% of respondents said they would be willing to pay additional taxes for the next 10 years to avoid any cuts to the national parks.)所以调查中的大多数受访者会愿意额外缴纳税款，即同意为国家公园支付额外的费用。
29.The national parks are valuable in that they
A.lead the way in tourism. B.have historical significance.
C.sponsor research on climate D. provide an income for the locals.
【答案】B.have historical significance. 解析： 该题为细节题，问国家公园很有价值因为它们怎么样，根据关键词the national parks，valuable回到原文中定位，文中提到，这些公园还有助于让美国的历史充满活力，与全国数千个地方司法机构合作，保护包括埃利斯岛和葛底斯堡在内的历史遗迹，并让这些地方的故事变得生动起来。”(The parks also help keep America’s past alive, working with thousands of local jurisdictions around the country to protect historical sites — including Ellis Island and Gettysburg — and to bring the stories of these places to life.)所以国家公园很有价值因为它们有助于让美国的历史充满活力，保护历史遗迹，即有历史意义。
30.It can be concluded from the text that the national park system
A.is able to cope with staff shortage.
B.is able to meet visitor’s demands.
C.is in need of a new price policy.
D.is in need of a funding increase.
【答案】D. is in need of a funding increase. 解析： 该题为细节题，问国家公园体系如何，根据关键词the national park system回到原文中定位，文中提到：“国会每年只给国家公园系统拨款30亿美元——这一数额自2001年以来一直没有变化(以通货膨胀调整后的美元计算)，除了2009年作为奥巴马刺激计划一部分的一次增加。与此同时，自1980年以来，每年的游客数量增长了50%以上，现在每年达到3.3亿人次。”(Congress allocates only $3 billion a year to the national park system — an amount that has been flat since 2001 (in inflation-adjusted dollars) with the exception of a onetime boost in 2009 as part of the Obama stimulus package. Meanwhile, the number of annual visitors has increased by more than 50% since 1980, and now stands at 330 million visitors per year.)可以得知，国家公园体系得到的拨款每年基本上保持不变，然而参观公园的游客再增长，所以国家公园体系需要拨款资金的增加。
The Internet may be changing merely what we remember, not our capacity to do so, suggests Columbia University psychology professor Betsy Sparrow. In 2011. Sparrow led a study in which participants were asked to record 40 factoids in a computer ( an ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain," for example). Half of the participants were told the information would be erased, while the other half were told it would be saved. Guess what?The latter group made no effort to recall the information when quizzed on it later, because they knew they could find it on their computers. In the same study. a group was asked to remember both the information and the folders it was stored in.They didn't remember the information, but they remembered how to find the folders. In other words, human memory is not deteriorating but adopting to new communications technology.'
Sparrow says. In a very practical way, the Internet is becoming an external hard drive for our memories, a process known as“cognitive offloading." Traditionally, this role was fulfilled by data banks, libraries, and other humans. Your father may never remember birthdays because your mother does. for instance. Some worry that this is having a destructive effect on society, but Sparrow sees an upside. Perhaps, she suggests, the trend will change our approach to 1earning from a focus on individual facts and memorization to an emphasis on more conceptual thinking something that is not available on the Internet.“I personally have never seen all that much intellectual value in memorizing things." Sparrow says, adding that we haven't lost our ability to do it. Still other experts say it's too soon to understand how the Internet affects our brains. There is no experimental evidence showing that it interferes with our ability to focus, for instance, wrote psychologists Christopher Chabris and DanielJ. Simons. And surfing the web exercised the brain more than reading did among computer-sawvy older adults in a 2008 study involving 24 participants at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at the University of California, Los Angeles. There may be costs associated with our increased reliance on the Internet, but I' d have to imagine that overall the benefits are going to outweigh those costs," observes psychology professor Benjamin Storm.“It seems pretty clear that memory is changing. but is it changing for the better? At this point, we don't know.
31. Sparrow’s study show that with the Internet, the human brain will____
A. analyze information in detail
B. collect information efficiently
C. switch its focus of memory
D. extend its memory duration
【答案】C. switch its focus of memory 解析：该题为细节题，问Sparrow的研究表明在互联网时代，人类大脑会怎样。通过Sparrow定位，最终锁定第一段最后一句，即对研究结论的表“human memory is not deteriorating but "adapting to new communications technology," 人类的记忆并没有退化，而是“适应新的通信技术”。 CD选项都提到了memory, C是转换大脑记忆焦点，D是延长大脑记忆时间。文章中的“适应新的通信技术” 对应C选项“转换焦点。”，因此答案是C。
32. The process of “cognitive offloading ”_______
A. helps us identify false information
B. keeps our memory from failing
C. enables us to classify trivial facts
D. lessens our memory burdens
【答案】D. lessens our memory burdens 解析：该题为细节题，通过cognitive offloading定位。 文章描述“互联网正在成为我们记忆的外部硬盘，这一过程被称为“cognitive offloading”。传统上，这一角色是由数据库、图书馆和其他人类完成的。例如，你的父亲可能永远不会记得生日，因为你的母亲会记得。” 即cognitive offloading可以帮助储存部分记忆，即对应D选项“减轻我们的记忆负担”。
33. Which of the following would Sparrows support about the Internet?
A. It may reform our learning approach
B. It may impact our society negatively
C. It may enhance our adaptability to technology
D. It may interfere with our conceptual thinking
【答案】A. It may reform our learning approach 解析：该题为细节题，通过Sparrows进行定位，本句话表明了Sparrows的观点：“the trend will change our approach to learning from a focus on individual facts and memorization to an emphasis on more conceptual thinking” “也许，她建议，这一趋势将改变我们的学习方式，从关注个人事实和记忆转变，变为关注更多的概念思维” 。A选项It may reform our learning approach(它可能会改变我们的学习方式)是对文章的同义改写。
34. It is indicated in Paragraph 3 that how the Internet affects our brains_____
A. requires further academic research
B. is most studied in older adults
C. is reflected in our reading speed
D. depends on our web-surfing habits
【答案】A. requires further academic research 解析：该题为推断题。段首句明确表示 “还有其他专家表示，现在了解互联网如何影响我们的大脑还为时过早。” 。A选项“需要进一步的学术研究” 是对文章的同义改写。
35. Neither Sparrows nor Storm would agree that______
A. our reliance on the Internet will be costly
B. the Internet is weakening our memory
C. memory exercise is a must for our brains
D. our ability to fucus declines with age
【答案】B. the Internet is weakening our memory 解析：该题为观点对比，问Sparrows和Storm都不会同意什么。Sparrows认为互联网可以改变我们的学习方式，Storm在文章最后一段表明观点。 "There may be costs associated with our increased reliance on the Internet, but I'd have to imagine that overall the benefits are going to outweigh those costs," “我们对互联网的依赖增加可能会带来一些成本，但我不得不想象，总的来说，收益将超过这些成本。”，因为Storm也支持互联网。即两人都没有认为互联网有害，对应B选项the Internet is weakening our memory，即都不会认为互联网正在削弱我们的记忆。
Teenagers are paradoxical That's a mild and detached way of saying something that parents often express with considerably stronger language. But the paradox is scientific as well as personal. In adolescence. helpless and dependent children who have relied on grown-ups for just about everything become independent people who can take care of themselves and help each other. At the same time,once cheerful and compliant children become rebellious teenage risk-takers. A new study published in the journal Child Development, by Eveline Crone of the University of Leiden and colleagues, suggests that the positive and negative sides of teenagers go hand in hand. The study is part of a new wave of thinking about adolescence.
For a long time scientists and policy makers concentrated on the idea that teenagers were a problem that needed to be solved. The new work emphasizes that adolescence is a time of opportunity as well as risk. The researchers studied prosocial and rebellious traits in more than 200 children and young adults, ranging from 11 to 28 years old. The participants filled out questionnaires about how often they did things that were altruistic and positive like sacrificing their own interests to help a friend, or rebellious and negative like getting drunk or staying out late. Other studies have shown that rebellious behavior increases as you become ateenager and then fades away as you grow older.
But the new study shows that interestingly, the same pattern holds for prosocial behavior Teenagers were more likely than younger children or adults to report that they did things like unselfishly help a friend. Most significantly, there was a positive correlation between prosociality and rebelliousness. The teenagers who were more rebellious were also more likely to help others. The good and bad sides of adolescence seem to develor together. Is there some common factor that underlies these apparently contradictory developments? One idea is that teenage behavior is related to what researchers call ' 'reward sensitivity. ' Decision-making always involves balancing rewards and risks, benefits and costs. "Reward sensitivity" measures how much reward it takes to outweigh risk. Teenagers are particularly sensitive to social rewards- winning the game. impressing a new friend, getting that boy to notice you. Reward sensitivity like prosocial behavior and risk-taking.seems to go up in adolescence and then down again as we age. Somehow, when you hit 30, the chance that something exciting and new will happen at that party just doesn't seem to outweigh the effort of getting up off the couch.
36.According to Paragraph 1, children growing into adolescence tend to.
A.develop opposite personality traits.
B.see the world in an unreasonable way.
C.have fond memories of their past.
D.show affection for their parents.
【36】A. develop opposite personality traits.解析：该题为细节题，问进入青春期的孩子往往会如何，根据关键词children，adolescence回到原文中定位， 文中提到：“在青春期，无助和依赖成年人的孩子成为独立的人，他们可以照顾自己，互相帮助。与此同时，曾经快乐顺从的孩子变成了叛逆的冒险家，往往到了自我毁灭的地步。(In adolescence, helpless and dependent children who have relied on grown-ups for just about everything become independent people who can take care of themselves and help each other. At the same time, once cheerful and compliant children become rebellious teenage risk-takers, often to the point of self-destruction. )所以进入青春期的孩子往往发展出相反的人格特征。
37.It can be learned form Paragraph 2 that Crone’s study
A. explores teenagers’ social responsibilities.
B. examines teenagers’ emotional problems.
C. provides a new insight into adolescence.
D. highlights negative adolescent behavior.
【37】C. provides a new insight into adolescence.解析： 该题为细节题，问Crone的研究如何，根据关键词Crone’s study回到原文中定位，文中提到：“这项研究是对青春期思考的新浪潮的一部分。很长一段时间以来，科学家和政策制定者都认为青少年是一个需要解决的问题。这项新研究强调，青春期是一个充满机遇和风险的时期。”(The study is part of a new wave of thinking about adolescence. For a long time, scientists and policy makers concentrated on the idea that teenagers were a problem that needed to be solved. The new work emphasizes that adolescence is a time of opportunity as well as risk.)所以Crone的研究和以往对于青春期的思考不一样，即为青春期提供了一个新的见解。
38.What does Crone’s study find about prosocial behavior?
A.It results from the wish to cooperate.
B.It is cultivated through education.
C.It is subject to family influence.
D.It tends to peak in adolescence.
【38】D.It tends to peak in adolescence.解析： 该题为细节题，问关于亲社会的行为，Crone的研究发现了什么，根据关键词Crone’s study，prosocial behavior回到原文中定位，文中提到：“有趣的是，这项新研究表明，亲社会行为也存在同样的模式。青少年比年幼的儿童或成年人更有可能报告他们做过无私地帮助朋友等事情。”( the new study shows that, interestingly, the same pattern holds for prosocial behavior. Teenagers were more likely than younger children or adults to report that they did things like unselfishly help a friend.)所以相比幼童和成人，青少年更容易做出亲社会的行为，即亲社会的行为往往在青春期达到顶峰。
39.It can be learned from the last two paragraphs that teenagers
A.verstress their influence on others.
B.care a lot about social recognition.
C.become anxious about their future.
D.endeavor to live a joyful life.
【39】B. care a lot about social recognition.解析： 该题为推理题，问青少年如何，文中提到：“青少年对社会奖励特别敏感——赢得比赛，给新朋友留下深刻印象，让那个男孩注意到你。”(Teenagers are particularly sensitive to social rewards—winning the game, impressing a new friend, getting that boy to notice you.)这些都是说青少年在乎社会奖励，即社会认可。
40.What is the text mainly about?
A.Why teenagers are self-contradictory.
B.Why teenagers are sensitive.
C.How teenagers develop prosociality.
D.How teenagers become independent.
【40】A.Why teenagers are self-contradictory. 解析： 该题为主旨题，第一段开头提到青少年是矛盾的，中间部分通过实验研究发现主要讨论青少年自相矛盾的表现，最后部分探讨了青少年自相矛盾产生的原因。 所以这篇文章主要讨论了青少年为什么是自相矛盾的。
Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
New building regulations aimed at improving energy efficiency are set to increase the price of new homes, as well as those of extensions and loft conversions on existing ones.
The rules, which came into effect on Wednesday in England, are part of government plans to reduce the UK’s carbon emissions to net zero by 2050. They set new standards for ventilation, energy efficiency and heating, and state that new residential buildings must have charging points for electric vehicles.
The moves are the most significant change to building regulations in years, and industry experts say they will inevitably lead to higher prices at a time when a shortage of materials and high labour costs is already driving up bills.
Brian Berry, chief executive of the Federation of Master Builders, a trade group for small and medium-sized builders, says the measures will require new materials, testing methods, products and systems to be installed. “All this comes at an increased cost during a time when prices are already sky high. Inevitably, consumers will have to pay more,” he says.
Gareth Belsham, of surveyors Naismiths, says people who are upgrading, or extending their home, will be directly affected.
“The biggest changes relate to heating and insulation,” he says. “There are new rules concerning the amount of glazing used in extensions, and any new windows or doors must be highly insulated.”
The changes could mean an extra £3,000 added to the bill of an average home extension, according to Jonathan Rolande of the National Association of Property Buyers, a group of professionals aimed at raising construction standards.
Homeowners extending may see the amount of space they have decrease, as walls will have to be thicker in order to comply with requirements for better insulation.
Andrew Mellor, of PRP architects, says external walls will need to be about 7cm thicker than previously.
Windows and doors will have to adhere to higher standards, while there are new limits on the amount of glazing you can have to reduce unwanted heat from the sun.
Thomas Goodman, of MyJobQuote, a site which sources quotes, says this will bring in new restrictions for extensions.
“Glazing on windows, doors and roof lights must cover no more than 25% of the floor area to prevent heat loss, ” he says.
As properties become more airtight, there are also measures to ensure proper airflow, such as having small openings (trickle vents) on windows that allow ventilation when a window is closed.
For people extending their homes, they may be required to install a new, or replacement, heating system depending on the size of the build, says Belsham. These will have to use lower temperature water to deliver the same heat, which will require increased insulation of pipes.
“We’ll see more insulation, better lighting design and restrictions on the amount of glass used in some areas. But with more thermal-efficient homes can come the risk of overheating due to solar gain, and so ventilation is also covered,” says Rolande. “As a result, double-glazed windows will require trickle vents to let heat escape and also to provide fresh air for health reasons and, of course, to reduce the risk of condensation build up in an ever-more airtight property.”
As the rules came into effect last Wednesday, property developers were rushing to file plans just before the deadline, according to Belsham. Any plans submitted before that date are considered to be under the previous rules, and can go ahead as long as work starts before 15 June next year.
An average extension will probably see around £3,000 additional cost thanks to the new regs
Builders which have costed projects, but have not filed the paperwork, may need to go back and submit fresh estimates, says Marcus Jefford of Build Aviator, which prices projects.
As the changes are aimed to make homes more energy efficient, they will eventually drive down heating bills. But in the short-term homeowners are likely to face higher costs for work.
Materials prices are already up 25% in the last two years, according to figures from the Construction Products Association.
How much overall prices will increase as a result of the rule changes is not clear. “While admirable in their intentions, they will add to the cost of housebuilding at a time when many already feel that they are priced out of homeownership,” says Rolande. “An average extension will probably see around £3,000 additional cost thanks to the new regs.”
John Kelly, a construction lawyer at Freeths law firm, believes prices will eventually come down. But not in the immediate future. “As the marketplace adapts to the new requirements, and the technologies that support them, the scaling up of these technologies will eventually bring costs down, but in the short term, we will all have to pay the price of the necessary transition,” he says.
However, the long-term effects of the changes will be more comfortable and energy-efficient homes, adds Mellor. “Homeowners will probably recoup that cost over time in energy bill savings. It will obviously be very volatile at the moment, but they will have that benefit over time.”
[A] The rise of home prices is a temporary matter.
41. Brain Berry
[B] Builders possibly need to submit new estimates of their projects.
42. Gareth Belsham
[C] There will be specific limits on home extensions to prevent heat loss.
43. Marcus Jefford
[D] The new rules will take home prices to an even higher level.
44. John Kelly
[E] Many people feel that home prices are already beyond what they can afford.
45. Andrew Mellor
[F] The new rules will affect people whose home extensions include new windows or doors.
[G] The rule changes will benefit homeowners eventually.
The new rules will take home prices to an even higher level.
根据题干Brian Berry进行定位，原文提到“All this comes at an increased cost during a time when prices are already sky high.”，即在价格已经高得离谱的时候，所有这些都会增加成本。对于消费者而言，新政策的发布会让原本就很高的房价继续攀高。D项为原文的同义改写，故D项正确。
The new rules will affect people whose home extensions include new windows or doors.
根据题干Gareth Belsham进行定位，原文提到“people who are upgrading, or extending their home, will be directly affected”，即考虑升级或者扩建房屋的人们会受到影响。F项为原文的同义改写，故F项正确。
Builders possibly need to submit new estimates of their projects.
根据题干Marcus Jefford定位定位，原文提到“Builders which have costed projects, but have not filed the paperwork, may need to go back and submit fresh estimates”，即已经估算项目成本但尚未提交文件的建筑商可能需要回去提交新的估算。B项为原文的同义改写，故B项正确。
The rise of home prices is a temporary matter.
根据John Kelly进行定位，原文提到“John Kelly, a construction lawyer at Freeths law firm, believes prices will eventually come down. But not in the immediate future.”，即房价最终一定会下降，但并不是在短期之内。所以，房价的下跌只是一个时间问题。A项为原文的同义改写，故A项正确。
The rule changes will benefit homeowners eventually.
根据Andrew Mellor 进行定位，原文提到“”Homeowners will probably recoup that cost over time in energy bill savings. It will obviously be very volatile at the moment, but they will have that benefit over time.”，即随着时间的推移，房主很可能会通过节省能源账单来收回这笔费用。目前情况显然会很不稳定，但随着时间的推移，他们会从中受益。G项为原文的同义改写，故G项正确。
Section III Translation
In the late 18th century, William Wordsworth became famous for his poems about nature. And he was one of the founders of a movement called Romanticism, which celebrated the wonders of the natural world.
Poetry is powerful. Its energy and rhythm can capture a reader, transport them to another world and make then see things differently. Through carefully selected words and phrases, poems can be dramatic, funny, beautiful, moving and inspiring.
No one knows for sure when poetry began but it has been around for thousands of years, even before people could write. It was a way to tell stories and pass down history. It is closely related to song and even when written it is usually created to be performed out loud. Poems really come to life when they ave recited. This can also help with understanding them too, because the rhythm and sounds of the words become clearer.
[解析] [参考范文] 18世纪后期,威廉华兹华斯因其关于自然的诗歌而闻名遐迩。他是浪漫主义运动的创始人之一,该运动赞美 自然世界的奇观。
Section IV Writing
An art exhibition and a robot show are to be held on Sunday, and your friend David asks you which one he should go to.
Write him an email to
1) make a suggestion, and
2) give your reason(s)
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your own name. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)
How are you doing recently? I am writing this email to provide some advice on the exhibition and show.
The detailed information is as follows. First of all, it is highly suggested that you should go to the robot show since I know you are always interested in the robot and machine. In addition, it is advisable for you to know some information about the ticket price and some limitation in advance. Last but not least, it is extremely important that you should utilize this platform to make more friends who have a lot of common with you.
I hope the above information would be useful. I am looking forward to your favorable reply.
【48】In your essay, you should describe the picture briefly, interpret the implied meaning and give your comments.You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
The above line chart explicitly presents information about the health literacy level of the citizens in China from 2012 to 2021. As is clearly illustrated in the graph, the share of health literacy ascended slightly from 8.8% to 11.58% from 2012 to 2016. Meanwhile, the proportion increased greatly from 11.58% to 25.4% from 2016 to 2021.
Several factors, from my perspective, can be easily found to account for the phenomenon, among which I would like to name three most significant ones as follows. In the first place, it is universally acknowledged that the relevant health departments has spared more efforts to advocate and encourage the public to pay attention to the physical and mental health. In addition, there is no denying that with the rapid development of social media such as short videos, more and more residents can get more health tips online. Last but not least, the sudden outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019 has been a wake-up call for many people, who began to focus on healthy and nutritious diet and do exercise, which is another significant factor that could not be ignored.
Taking all these factors into consideration, we can safely come to the conclusion that the current trend will continue for a while in the near future.